Cultures can be traumatized when repeated denigration, attempts at assimilation, and genocide occur. In North America the First Nations culture has experienced significant trauma as a result of colonization. Following 9/11 the North American culture became organized around fear and terror as a direct result of the trauma experienced from this event. In addition other countries that have experienced trauma that has impacted their culture would include Sudan, Rwanda, Syria and Cambodia.

"Everyone has a right to have a present and future that are not completely dominated and dictated by the past" - Karen Saakvitne