Trauma can also be the direct result of colonization/historical. Colonization has been defined as “a process whereby one group of peoples assumes control over another group of people” (Blue Quills First Nations, 2011). Historical trauma has been defined as “a collective complex trauma inflicted on a group of people who share a specific group identity or affiliation- ethnicity, nationality and religious affiliation. It is the legacy of numerous traumatic events a community experiences over generations and encompasses the psychological and social responses to such events” (Evans-Campbell, 2008). In Canada the legacy of colonization and historical trauma involved the use of residential schools and separating children from their parents, communities and cultures. This could also include genocide that countries such as Rwanda and Dafur have experienced. In addition the Holocaust would be another example of a historical trauma.

"Everyone has a right to have a present and future that are not completely dominated and dictated by the past" - Karen Saakvitne